Webinar Date: January 23,2014
Would you like to be able to deliver a more personalized, relevant learning experience to each of your students? This webinar will showcase creative ideas, reflective practices, and various technologies that can transform your teaching. Join Naomi Harm as she shares innovative instructional strategies that will allow for differentiation approaches, educator choice, challenge-based learning, and mobile learning opportunities. Collaborative teaming and active learning activities will be discussed along with virtual brainstorming, “bumping” of ideas, and augmented reality mobile learning.
LORI: Welcome to today’s webinar, “Transforming Education with Personalized Learning and Differentiated Instruction,” brought to you by Simple K12. My name is Lori and I’m here with Naomi Harm, and we are so excited to have all of you here with us today. Now we do have lots of great webinars coming up, hope that you will join us. You can register for those upcoming sessions including those Days of Learning inside of the Teacher Learning Community. Now this webinar is brought to you free today thanks to our sponsor. DreamBox Learning motivates all levels of learners to achieve math proficiency. The result is increased achievement, deep understanding, and lifelong confidence in math. Please take a minute to visit our sponsor at the end of our webinar today.
Now if you are joining us live, I just sent out a tweet from our Twitter account. Feel free to retweet to your followers and invite them to attend today’s session that is free and open to the public. Be sure to include this link as well as the hashtag #sk12 when you send out your tweet. Once again, we do have a backchannel discussion open for this session. The TitanPad is a great place for you all as attendees to take notes and chat with one another. I went ahead and sent that link out through the chat area of GoToWebinar, and I’ll go ahead and resend that again in just a moment. We will have some time for some live Q&A at the end of our session today. Please feel free to submit your questions through that questions box at GoToWebinar. Now it does tend to auto-collapse but if you click on that orange arrow, the question box will open and you can type in your question.
Now a little bit about our presenter. Naomi Harm is best known as a 21st century educational technology literacy specialist. She’s an Intel National Senior Trainer, a Google certified teacher and a 1:1 mobile learning specialist. Naomi also delivers motivational international keynote presentations and is truly passionate about building global relationship with educational technology leaders to meet the needs of today’s diverse learners. Naomi, it is a pleasure to be here with you today, as always.
NH: Thank you so much, Lori. It’s always a pleasure to have an opportunity to present for Simple K–12 in the webinars and so glad that you’re here with us. Even though the sun is shining outside today, I am welcoming you from a chilly negative five below from Brownsville, Minnesota today. We have about 25 below wind chill factors happening here. So I hope where you’re at that is much warmer, but I know throughout the Midwest, we’ve got this winter freeze that has come through. So it’s only a few more months before spring is upon us. But everyone, I’m so glad that you’re here today because we are here to showcase and share some great new findings all around transforming education with personalized learning to basically differentiate the instruction of your learners in your classroom.
Once again, just to give you an overview, if you’re coming in from a different country today, the location of my geographical location and just to give you some perspective is I’m in a southeast corner of Brownsville, Minnesota. I actually live 15 miles from Wisconsin and 15 miles from Iowa. So I travel through three states a lot. I want to know a little bit more about you. So please continue that backchannel chat conversation so that we can really personalize our learning today. It’s really about asking more questions and getting at that heart of that conversation to improve the instructional approach that you offer in your classroom to really meet the needs of today’s learner. So please feel free to ask more questions, share some critical insights or some great resources so that we can extend the learning of our learning community today. Remember, it’s a collaborative backchannel chat that you’re in in that TitanPad, so feel free to ask those questions and we will be addressing those at the end of our webinar today.
A question that I’d like to start out with that you can continue to ponder as we present over the next 30 minutes is, what does it truly look like for your classroom? And what does differentiation instruction look like in your class to really personalize learning for each and every one of your students? I know that’s a big question to even ask because you’re thinking, “Oh my gosh, I’ve got 30 kids in my classroom this year. How can I truly meet all of their needs?” Well, there’s going to be many strategies that I’m going to share with you of how that you can really maximize the potential for collaboration, working with students with dynamic duos or transformative trios but helping meet those needs of those individual children in smaller groups so that you can be a true facilitator to get to and from all of your children or your students of every grade level within a given class period or a block scheduled period in your day.
First of all, we need to really start with the end in mind. Any time that we’re transforming even our instructional approach for us as a teacher to really focus on differentiated learning and the style of a child, we really need to note what is it that we want to transform, what is that learning target that we’re trying to identify. So I do all a lot with classroom design, where we really do start with the end in mind. So by starting with the end in mind, these are tools that I use on a daily basis that really help me do my job better.
I would like to just refer to the ISTE NETS Curriculum Planning Tool guide and the ISTE NETS Profiles. Those two particular tools help me really target a learning outcome for a child or a particular student. And what I like about the ISTE Student Profiles in particular, it breaks it down by PreK through two, three through five, six through eight, and nine through twelve of those grade levels. And in each of those grade levels of those strands between those three years that they focus on, it provides us with 10 key learning experiences that our students should be exposed to, that they should have hands-on experiences with, and so that they can showcase their learning. Not only do those profiles help us as a guide but to differentiate the type of technique of a resource that we could introduce to a particular child to meet their learning need. The Curriculum Planning Tool will give you many different skills or scenarios to help you meet that need of that child. So these are great resources.
The ISTE NETS Student Profiles are free. And you can just go to iste.org and then do a search for Student Profiles, and that’s a free PDF. The Curriculum Planning Tool, if you’re an ISTE member, is around $5, so it’s very cost-effective. But any time that we’re going in to really transform critical thinking, the problem solving practice, and actually creating an infused technology plan, we refer back to that Curriculum Planning Tool to help us, be our master guide, but really it focuses on meeting those individual needs of our students.
The second item that I’d like to share with you is helping kids also identify their learning targets. We need to get at the heart of understanding how do they learn best, because for in order for us to differentiate instruction, we really need to get into their minds of knowing how do they learn best and what type of multiple intelligence really is showcased through their strand of their critical thinking, how they create, how they process, and then how they can contribute to the whole learning of a classroom. So one thing that you may want to think about is that you really involve kids on the front-end especially when you are creating a lesson. So to truly differentiate, you can group kids, if you need to, by tht ability grouping, or it could be grouping children also by their area of interest or how they learn best. But having kids be involved at the beginning that they also craft their own learning targets that are aligned to Common Core standards and their personalized learning goals, they will be more engaged, more on task and they will really show what they know about their ownership of learning. They’re going to be more responsible.
Aligning it with standards too is very important, but students need to know what the standards are. We as teachers know what they are, but sometimes when we’re teaching in the classroom, the kids will—you know, they’ll pause and then they’ll reflect and then they’ll say, “Well, Mrs. Harm, why is this even relevant? Why do I need to use algebra? Where is it going to come where I will have to use that later in life?” So we need to be ready for that as teachers. And if we can use the standards to help be our guide, that is our accountability piece to help our kids understand better where it will fit into their everyday world and to have those scenarios outlined and especially if it’s got that career focus too, then it will add more meaning to our kiddos.
The other thing that’s worked really well when we focus and help kids build around their goal, their personalized learning, and then their customized learning targets, helping kids also be part of those professional success action plans. A lot of times, we build plans right now that are called IEPs, the individual educational plans for our children that we work with special needs. But helping our kids have their own professional learning plan—it can be called the PLP. But as part of that, having kids build their action plan of where they currently are at and where they want to go, identifying that standard, a learning outcome, and they also draft that path of how they will learn best—and even having kids on the front end help co-design a rubric to tie into what that final product can look like of the digital product. That’s what’s so important so the kids have that ownership. They feel responsible and they have an opportunity to really become empowered with that learning.
One thing that I start with anytime, that I’m even working with teachers or administrators, or even students, there’s an app that is a Chrome app. And please note, Chrome apps basically are websites. So a Chrome app is a shortcut to take us to a website. But this Chrome app that I use that is called My World. It is very visually-driven and it’s wonderful, because you can start with a blank landscape and it gives you over 400 pictures to choose from, and you can drag and drop onto this digital landscape. And I always pose the question to students when I work with them, I really want to know how do they learn best or tell me also what are three things that you can identify through the pictures that really personally and professionally motivates you. And when you drag these pictures up to the digital landscape then you can click Analyze with this tool, it’ll analyze the pictures and it will give them a playback of really analyzing basically the critical thought of what those pictures mean and what type of student that child is by choosing those pictures. And it kind of crafts that as a means of how they critically think, how they apply their knowledge, but it gives them a bigger picture of kind of where they’re at. And some of that, what is so neat about it, is that what we work with kids. Once they do that analysis of that, the kids can actually download the picture with the crafted quote of how it analyzed that application and then we start a writing prompt from it. Then the kids really take off and tell me, “Hey, Mrs. Harm, this is how I learn best. This is what I like to do professionally in school, and then personally at home, this is what I’m really interested in as well.” That’s going to help me as a teacher to personally get to know each and every one of my children so that I can really customize and differentiate their learning path to help them be as successful as I can in my classroom.
Another means to helping kids to really focus on that learning and be very successful, I have some assessment strategies, and they may be more different than what you’ve used in the past. And a lot of times, we use assessment strategies that we have our common assessments that we’re using in our classrooms, but there are some really creative authentic assessments to get at the heart of formative assessment that could really tell us a lot more about those students, of how they learn. But also this authentic assessment could also give us a bigger picture of where there could be possible gaps or even some miscommunications or conceptions of how the children are understanding something. I really like to use reflective graphic organizers for students, because that gives them an area that’s more visual. They can still reflect in smaller chunks, but it can be visualized through basically a picture analysis as well.
Now the one that have pictured here, we use a lot for students at the beginning of a school year. But it can be used throughout, especially if you’re a middle school or high school teacher, because you’re working with many different students throughout the year. This particular one—it’s just a PDF—and this particular one is an All About Me. All About Me is really focusing on the heart of the child itself. That personalized learning. The child wants you to know about them and how they learn best. You could use any type of personal organizer like this such as through mobile technology, Chromebook technology, any type of laptop. But helping our children really structure and organize their critical thinking and then displaying it visually, they feel more ownership in that to really tell their story about themselves. Again, it’s going to help you as a teacher to know what makes that child tick, or at the same time, maybe they have a very dissatisfied interest in something else. You know, what could it be? So it’s helping you know, oh okay, now I need to change this type of instruction with this child because this has come up about the All About Me paper. Something else that you may think about too is any time that we can help our students through graphic organizers, visually display and also reflect is helping us get at the heart of really how best that student learns, where they may struggle with difficulties but also again, that personal interest to differentiate that type of instruction for that child or those group of children.
Another thing that I came across lately is called a Character Scrapbook. It compliments All About Me introductions at any grade level children, but it’s online and it’s a free tool created by scholastic.com. And Character Scrapbooks are really kind of interesting, because you could also use them as a graphic display of an All About Me, or you can dig deeper into character analysis to do compare and contrast with how the student learns compared to a character in a piece of literature or a novel. It’s quite intuitive. So the Scholastic one, it really compliments for—really, it’s for a second grade through an eighth-grade focus. That might be something to help you differentiate with your groups of students, of where they’re at with their lifestyle learning levels and then group them accordingly if they need more extensions or enrichments, or if you need to refocus, that kids need more time to process, to apply, and then offer a more simplified learning level for those children.
Other assessment strategies to help you in personalizing learning or offering a varied differentiation instruction in your classroom, I would highly suggest different types of mobile assessments and websites that can complement what you do well already. Some of you may be using these tools already. Many of these tools are so streamlined now and it’s so nice that it infuses the technology so seamlessly that the kids are actually—don’t see this as an assessment. It’s more like a game-based approach because it’s so interactive. Socrative is a wonderful tool, and I call it a DNA tool because a DNA can be a device-neutral activity or device-neutral app. And Socrative is an Android app. It’s an iPad app, and it’s also website-based. So it’s an assessment tool that you can have true/false, yes or no, multiple choice, short answer, and a little longer answer. And also, you can set up a gaming scenario where you can set up like a trivia question or review for a quiz, and kids can compete against other groups in their own classroom. So you can actually have kids, group them accordingly, and offer those different types of assessment.
Other ones that are here, some of you are probably really familiar. Google Forms, it works really well when you set up a Google Form. And then when you publish that form, you can utilize it on your mobile device as well, and then you can really work with collaborative learning groups that you have set up in particular cooperative groups, grouping strategies. Infuse Learning and Get Kahoot are absolutely marvelous. Infused Learning really meets many different levels of students where you can set up different ability testing for your children to meet their needs. It also infuses, and what I like about it, is five different languages. So if a child is speaking English and is just starting to learn Spanish, you can actually create the question in English but it can be spoken back in Spanish or vice versa. So if a child also is more fluent because their first language is Spanish and they’re learning English, you can still have the words in English and then have it be pronounced in Spanish. So it’s trying to help a child learn that new language that they’re introduced to but at the same time, to assessing their knowledge and it can be very much picture-driven. So the picture is there to help tell the story, to understand the context of the message that is displayed.
And Get Kahoot is like a game-based learning as well, very picture-driven. It can be used with ability grouping of children as well. It can be used for children that are single as well. You can do true/false, yes/no, and multiple choice. And the quicker the students answer the question, they gain more points because it’s kind of looking at that delayed reaction of how children are understanding. Other types like you’re even working on today in the backchannel chat here, you’ve got a Type Pad. It’s a great way to critically reflect with a team or group of learners. So you can also group children into collaborative learning groups that you as a teacher can call the essential or a thematic unit question, and from there, kids can reflect in groups to really showcase what they know on the topic or the content question that you pose for them.
Other tools, TodaysMeet, we use that a lot of backchannel chat to making sure that everybody has a critical voice, everybody has the ability to share and to extend their learning of the whole community of learners that you’re working with. The same thing works just wonderfully with Google Docs. We create e-journals also with students so all students can be successful with their writing, that they know that they can share out with others or they can keep it to themselves. But all children can see the immediate success that they will have, and then you as a teacher can give them the immediate feedback as well.
One thing I must say that any time—I’ll go back just to that slide where we talk about TodaysMeet, Type Pad, or Google Docs. When we use any type of collaboration writing with children, children need to know that there still needs to be structure and a framework for accountability and respect of words and voice of children with other children. So it’s really important that when I work with kids of a certain age level, we make sure that they identify their first name and then I usually put their last or their first letter of their last name. So an example would be like Naomi H. because my name is Naomi Harm. But when I come into that type of scenario, what I’ll do also is that children need to understand that they still need to socially listen respectfully on a collaborative document, because the words are coming in quickly. That’s a social environment, but they need to show respect, but they need to listen. And listen means because even though it’s text coming in, they still need to read and to reflect and know that there is a critical voice there even though it’s a written response.
Helping children know that when we talk online with others, like discussing issues, we never discuss people. It’s always issues, what can we change, what can we transform, and how can we find a new solution. But the more opportunities where kids are in an area to collaborate together, it’s amazing the types of innovative ideas that can be created and shared with others to extend the learning of everyone in that community. Again, I always—especially with older kids because they like to test the rule of thumb once in a while where they may want to try some different type of reflective thought in a collaborative environment, but we always note that we need to probe ideas, gain insight, and make meaningful connections. But again, we never criticize philosophies because that’s not the place to do it. And if you disagree with someone, that’s when it’s best to always have a face-to-face conversation so you can see those true social context clues of an individual, because we can’t hide behind that computer screen because words can be quite hurtful, as we know. But it’s always best so kids know to differentiate in this situation of when to have those types of conversations and again, just showing respect of anything that we do, whether it’s face-to-face or online.
Other assessment strategies I wanted to give to you, if you haven’t already, ePorfolios are a wonderful way to differentiate instruction for each and every one of your children to showcase their success, show their learning growth over time, and celebrate with your students even if it’s smaller gains, but for some of those children, that success is their next leap to make a greater change in their growth model. Badges also have been very intuitive, and it’s amazing how some of our kids really take off because it’s not necessarily that it’s intrinsic. It’s a little bit of an extrinsic motivator, but it’s just a digital badge and it doesn’t cost anything. Classbadges are very interesting, and classbadges.com is an online site for you as a teacher created by James. And I worked with James—as a Google certified teacher, I worked with him, and he created these Classbadges so that when you’re working in a digital environment, such as you’re if using a Google site as a website and kids are creating their ePortfolios and they have actually accomplished and contributed to their work upload and reflected where they’ve needed to, they can earn a badge to showcase that they’ve turned in their work and they’ve contributed to helping someone else. At the same time, the kids collect the badges to earn different levels of learning. You can also create your own custom badges through here. So we do that for our digital and technology camps that we lead.
Other tie-ins that you can do to help kids meet needs—meet the needs of their varied levels is bring the real world into them. So there are lots of great global collaboration projects that we currently have, like Projects by Jen, GSN, and ePals, all kinds of great things that we have here. So Projects by Jen, she has a National Parks project currently running for that middle school level, absolutely brilliant, where you can connect with another classroom around the world. And it’s absolutely amazing where some children may be struggling with their reading and writing aspects, but bringing in a global collaboration project is bringing that world to them and they get quite excited that even our most reluctant writers all of a sudden have this passion to start writing. It is phenomenal, so tap into any of those. GSN stands for the Global School Network, and you can set up a global collaboration project there or just join one as a traveling project like a flat family project or others.
Physical space is very important too, and physical space will also add to the dynamics of the learning ability of your children. The more comfortable the seating, the more comfortable the climate, the more comfortable and conducive the colors and the workflow of your classroom, the more engaged your children will be. I have a whole another section on design on a dime about the physical space that I’ll share with you in the future, but that’s something to really be thinking about. You need to make your classroom as comfortable and safe and warm and friendly as your own home would be. We want kids to feel that they are very special in that place. We want them to feel safe, and we want them to feel safe enough that they can share with all of the students in the classroom. So I challenge you as a teacher to get started with changing the physical space, rearranging that you have more collaborative spaces to work with your children so that you can be that true facilitator to meet each and every one of their needs.
So just some little call outs about different sections here for spaces. You could have some visual brainstorming for kids so you can have creation station. There’s another science lab quadrant that we have here. So maybe you’ve got some hands-on assignments in the corner or techniques that kids are actually working in a lab setting. You could have individual stations, like the young lad’s got a Chromebook or a MacBook computer down at the very bottom, that there are times that they can still work singly when they need to. And the other picture has lots of opportunity that kids can learn from one another, actively listen, share, and contribute to a digital product.
The last thing, a choice to differentiate and showcase your learning. What’s really important about this is that even now, where you’re listening to what I’m presenting to you, but in the backchannel chat, you know, what types of choice do you currently offer and showcase your learning to your children. Keep that in mind. Choice is so very important. The types of choice that I use for personalized learning and to differentiate different projects, I use the tool called Differentiator. It’s driven by Blooms Taxonomy that you can also choose the type of thinking skill empowered by the content, a particular on or offline resource, and a product that kids create. And you can also set it up according to groups, by one, two, three, or four. This is a free tool created by a teacher for gifted and talented students, and it works for any children of any ability, just not for gifted and talented. And what a unique way to set up learning targets for your children and to give lots of choice.
The other tool I wanted to share with you is called Roger Taylor’s Research, and if you haven’t heard about him, he’s been around for quite a while. He’s got a great job of a brilliant grid, and I’ve got the link here for you. But if you even do a search of Roger Taylor’s Multiple Intelligence Grid, it’s going to help you meet the individual need of that child to differentiate their learning path based on their ability level but also based on what their learning style is. And this is amazing. There are over 300 types of digital projects that kids can create that you have never maybe thought of. He’s got a brilliant list, and then he has this grid to give lots of choice and helping kids even be part of this choice as well. Always incorporate BLOOMS no matter what, because it’s going to help kids think more deeply about the content. It’s going to also help them generate more questions, and it’s going to help them be more empowered in that learning process.
Another book that I’d like to share with you is just HOT Apps for HOTS. It’s an iBook that can be displayed back on your iPad. What is beautiful about this is HOT Apps for HOTS stands for Higher Order Thinking Skills. Lisa Johnson and Yolanda Barker did a wonderful job putting this together with using mobile technology, finding the best app to get the job done to challenge the thinking of every one of our children at whatever ability level that they come to your classroom with. It’s just brilliantly done.
There’s all kinds of apps that are out there too to help you differentiate instruction and helping with the power of questioning techniques. My favorite app is called the Stick Pick, and it’s really going to help you with BLOOMS-aligned questions to meet the children where they’re at and to help them extend their learning. And you can use this as a group tool or individually as for each child. This particular app is a cost app now, and it runs about $2.99. I have a list of Android Apps, iPad apps if you’d like more differentiation. Kathy Schrock has done a brilliant job as well.
And our closing reflection to you today is, how will you create a more personalized and student-centered learning environment for each and every one of your students? So thank you so much. Lori, if you could come back on and we’ll take any questions, and I know we’re close on time again.
LORI: Great Naomi. Thank you so much for a wonderful presentation. I’ll give you just a couple of moments to catch your breath and then we’ll take some Q&A from our attendees. So if you do have a question for Naomi, please feel free to submit it now through that questions box at GoToWebinar. This webinar has been brought to you free today thanks to our sponsor. DreamBox Learning is a deeply personalized math learning experience that differentiates content, pace, and sequence for the highest levels of student achievement. With over 1,200 lessons, DreamBox motivates and guides all levels of learners to persist, progress, and achieve math proficiency, and the result is increased achievement, deep understanding, and lifelong confidence in math. I’ll go ahead and send out that link to all of you. We do invite you to visit our friends at DreamBox.
Now we do have—just a couple of moments here. I’m going to pop back into Teacher Learning Community, share with you where you can find some additional resources if you’re wanting to learn more. A great place to start would be underneath our link for Differentiated Learning. Some fabulous on-demand webinar recordings there, some wonderful resources. Also underneath, our link for iPads and mobile learning. So if you’re looking for some additional resources and wanting to learn more, there are some great resources inside of the Teacher Learning Community.
Okay, Naomi. Let me go ahead and get your contact information up here on my screen. Question from Suzanne. “All the websites you showed today, can we find them on your profile or your website?”
NH: I can add them to my website if you’d like. What we’re going to do is this particular updated presentation that I have, we will put back in a Simple K–12 community. And you can search my name out so you can have the entirety of that content of the presentation as well. But I’ll also put it on my main page. It will be up there probably within about 20 minutes, and you can get the link from there and also, the entirety of that presentation. So two locations it will be.
LORI: Great, Naomi. Thank you so much. I think we have time for one more question. And Naomi, you shared so many innovative strategies with us today, what would you say is your favorite for someone who’s just getting started, maybe a first year teacher?
NH: Well, one of the strategies but I’d also say the resource, one of my favorite is the Differentiator, the tool that was created by the gifted and talented teacher because a first year teacher or a second grade teacher, you’re very excited about—you wanted to make a difference and a change in your classroom and sometimes, it’s meeting the needs of each of those children. By helping you set up those learning targets through the Differentiator, you’re going to allow for that teacher now to create lots of choice for those children. And it’s going to help you to create some really creative digital projects as well that will keep your inspiration alive and going for many years to come. I just introduced the Differentiator yesterday in a 1:1 training, and this was the first time that some teachers that have been teaching for 20 years, this is the first time that they’ve seen it. They said, “This gets me so excited like my first year of teaching.” So if it gets them that excited, I’d like to introduce it even if you’re brand new teacher, because I think that it will be a tool that you will use for your lifetime of teaching as well.
LORI: Great, Naomi. I did have one more question that came in from Dennis. Now in differentiated instruction and personalized learning, how difficult is it to properly assess the students? And what are some ways to do this?
NH: Could you just repeat that one more time?
LORI: Yes. With differentiated instruction and personalized learning, how difficult is it to assess students? And what are some of the ways to do this?
NH: Okay. It does take time. It does take some practice, but what I usually do to help me stay more organized, to be more effective, I really do utilize Google apps and I use Google Forms that I will set up in a form. I will add a class list of my students, and I will actually add my standards or my Common Core standards during a lesson. And when I do a mobile walk around, which is called an MWA, I can instantly check where children are at. I can see which children are struggling by a simple checklist that I use on my mobile device, and it will collate that data into a spreadsheet. For me, that data is very, very important, meaning that I can make more of an immediate change instead of waiting till the end of the week. I can intervene even during a part of a lesson or at the end of a lesson to work in small group work right away too. I personally love to have kids work in collaborative groups, and there are times that some children don’t want to work to in collaborative groups who will have that singleton time. But if I have 30 children in my classroom and I can create pods of even five—six pods of five in each group, I can more quickly get to each and every group instead of singly going to each child that if I have them grouped according to ability or a type of learning style, and I can then see what needs to be changed or modified. So the collaborative grouping helps me be a better and effective facilitator to make more immediate change.
LORI: Great, Naomi. Thank you again for a wonderful presentation. It’s been a pleasure being here with you today, as always. I look forward to being here with you again for some future sessions.
NH: Thank you so much. I appreciate your time and effort to have the opportunity to share the personalized learning strand today. Thanks so much, Lori.
LORI: Thanks again, Naomi.